Do Hydrocarbons Cause Cancer?

Why is PAH carcinogenic?

Increased incidences of lung, skin, and bladder cancers are associated with occupational exposure to PAHs.

These reports, however, provide only qualitative evidence of the carcinogenic potential of PAHs in humans because of the presence of multiple PAH compounds and other suspected carcinogens..

How can polycyclic aromatic hydrocarbons be prevented?

Stop smoking and avoid exposure to smoke. Smoking and exposure to second hand smoke increase the risk of lung cancer. Cigarette smoke contains PAHs and other carcinogenic substances. Exposure to PAHs by smoking or second hand smoke may increase the risk of overexposure to PAHs and PAH related disease.

Why is PAH harmful?

Repeated skin contact to the PAH naphthalene can result in redness and inflammation of the skin. Breathing or swallowing large amounts of naphthalene can cause the breakdown of red blood cells. Long-term exposure to low levels of some PAHs have caused cancer in laboratory animals.

What is PAH in food?

Polycyclic aromatic hydrocarbons (PAHs) are a group of contaminants produced by burning of carbon-based materials. … Some PAHs are known to cause cancer because they can damage DNA. It is therefore important that levels present in food are as low as reasonably achievable.

Is biphenyl A PAH?

Another type of polycyclic aromatic hydrocarbon contains two or more benzenoid rings joined by a carbon-carbon single bond. The simplest compound of this type is biphenyl, the compound from which PCBs (polychlorinated biphenyls) are derived.

Are PAHs POPs?

EEA-32 emissions of polycyclic aromatic hydrocarbons (PAHs), an important group of chemicals categorised as persistent organic pollutants (POPs), have decreased by 63% between 1990 and 2007. … In 2007, the most significant source of PAHs was the ‘other energy’ sector accounting for 41% of total PAH emissions.

How do hydrocarbons affect human health?

Many are not harmful unless the oily liquid gets into the lungs. … However, if it enters the lungs, it can cause a pneumonia-like condition; irreversible, permanent lung damage; and even death. Some hydrocarbons can cause other effects, including coma, seizures, irregular heart rhythms or damage to the kidneys or liver.

What is pah4?

„PAH4“ and benzo[a]pyrene in the spotlight. PAH are a group of organic compounds consisting of at least two condensated aromatic rings. Many PAH are supposed to be cancerogenic and mutagenic. Due to their toxicity, persistence and distribu- tion, PAH play a major role amongst harmful substances.

What is PAH in water?

PAHs are a class of diverse organic compounds containing two or more fused aromatic rings of carbon and hydrogen atoms. … In drinking- water, the PAHs detected in the highest concentrations are fluoranthene (FA), phenanthrene, pyrene (PY), and anthracene.

Why are they called aromatic hydrocarbons?

Aromatic compounds, originally named because of their fragrant properties, are unsaturated hydrocarbon ring structures that exhibit special properties, including unusual stability, due to their aromaticity. They are often represented as resonance structures containing single and double bonds.

What is another name for aromatic hydrocarbon?

An aromatic hydrocarbon or arene (or sometimes aryl hydrocarbon) is a hydrocarbon with sigma bonds and delocalized pi electrons between carbon atoms forming a circle. In contrast, aliphatic hydrocarbons lack this delocalization.

What are the main sources of aromatic hydrocarbons?

Simple aromatic hydrocarbons come from two main sources: Coal and petroleum. Coal is a complex mixture of a large number of compounds, most of which are long-chain compounds. If coal is heated to about 1000 °C in the absence of air (oxygen), volatile components, the so-called tar oil, are stripped out.

What are the carcinogenic polynuclear hydrocarbons?

Evidence indicates that mixtures of PAHs are carcinogenic to humans. … The EPA has classified the following seven PAH compounds: benz(a)anthracene, benzo(a)pyrene, benzo(b)fluoranthene, benzo(k)fluoranthene, chrysene, dibenz(ah)anthracene, and indeno(1,2,3-cd) pyrene as probable human carcinogens [67].

Where are aromatic hydrocarbons found?

Polycyclic aromatic hydrocarbons (PAHs) are a class of chemicals that occur naturally in coal, crude oil, and gasoline. They also are produced when coal, oil, gas, wood, garbage, and tobacco are burned. PAHs generated from these sources can bind to or form small particles in the air.

What is the EPA approved limit of PAHs?

Environmental Standards EPA, as a regulatory agency, sets a maximum contaminant level (MCL) for benzo(a)pyrene, the most carcinogenic PAH, at 0.2 ppb. EPA also sets MCLs for five other carcinogenic PAHs (see Table 1).